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JIVERSITY OF GEORC 



OCT 2 7 1997 



LiSRARlES 

DEPOSITORS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/whitehousegarden001997 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

WASH INGTON 

October 1997 

Welcome to the White House! 

The President and I are pleased that you have chosen to visit the White 
House Gardens and State Rooms. Your walk today through the 
grounds and State Floors of the White House is an experience unique 
to this country. Only the United States offers, on a regular basis, free 
public tours of the residence of its Chief Executive. During the past 
year, over 1.5 million people toured the White House, showing that as 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt so appropriately stated, it is a 
house that is "owned by all the American people." 

Many of the flowers, trees and shrubs that you will see today have been 
planted by, or in memory of, former Presidents. As a part of this 
tradition. President Clinton and I have planted on the grounds 
dogwood trees, a linden, an American elm and a willow oak. On the 
following pages you will find a detailed plan for the commemorative 
plantings. Also included is information on each of the pieces currently 
on display in the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden. They are part of 
Twentieth Century American Sculpture at the White House, 
Exhibition VI. 

On your tour, you will proceed through the Jacqueline Kennedy 
Garden, along the driveway, through the Children's Garden and the 
Rose Garden and into the Residence itself for a visit to the State 
Rooms. Along the way, a collection of photographs features some of 
the historic events that have occurred at the White House. 

During the past year, the lawns and gardens of the White House have 
been the scene of both historical events and informal entertainment of 
friends and family. At every gathering, guests sense the loving care 
that has been given to this beautiful house and grounds by all of the 
First Families who have lived here. 

It is my hope that as you tour today you will enjoy the beauty and 
tranquillity of this special place and that you will share with the 
President and me the sense of our nation's history that it evokes. 



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Few places provide such a sense of the continuity of American 
history as the grounds of the White House. All our Presidents 
except George Washington have lived and worked on this knoll 
overlooking the Potomac River. And it was Washington himself 
who selected the site, allowing for extensive grounds, which would 
be landscaped as the "President's Park." 

John Adams, the second President, moved into the mansion in the 
fall of 1800, describing the grounds as a barren expanse strewn 
with building rubble and abandoned brick kilns. Thomas Jefferson 
first planned the landscape of the grounds when he followed 
Adams to the White House in 1801. It was Adams' son. President 
John Quincy Adams, inaugurated in 1825, who loved the White 
House grounds most of all. He employed a full-time gardener and 
developed extensive plantings, some of which he set out himself. A 
stately American elm planted by him survived until the fall of 
1991; it was the oldest of over 30 commemorative trees planted by 
the Presidents and First Ladies throughout the past. A grafted tree 
propagated from the original John Quincy Adams' elm was planted 
in the same location by Barbara Bush on December 5, 1991. 

All our Presidents and First Ladies have been, in a sense, avid 
gardeners. Each has made a mark on the grounds of the White 
House. Jefferson constructed mounds on the south as visual barriers 
to give privacy to the house; the ancient magnolia trees to the left 
of the south front were brought in the 1830s from Andrew Jackson's 
home in Tennessee. There is evidence a fountain on the south side 
was there prior to 1861; the fountain on the north side was built for 
Ulysses S. Grant in 1873. 

Early in the 20th century, as the city of Washington grew closer to 
the venerable President's Park, the grounds took on a more stately 
appearance with the introduction of numerous evergreen trees and 
shrubs to preserve the remote and pastoral character the house 
had known since it was built. On the north grounds was developed 
an open grove, largely of elm trees, shading the lawn that stretches 
from Pennsylvania Avenue to the mansion. On the south grounds 
deep borders of forest were planted, flanking the open carpet of 
lawn that slopes toward the Potomac River. 



The spectacular view of the south was planned in 1935, in 
anticipation of the building of the Jefferson Memorial. Numerous 
trees were removed from the end of the lawn to allow for a full 
vista of the Memorial, completed during World War II, and the 
landscape of Virginia beyond. 

At the present time the White House grounds retain the lawn to 
the north and the great open greensward to the south. Near the 
base of the house, drinking the south sun, are newer and m.ore 
intimate gardens of a formal character. To the east is the 
Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, which Hillary Rodham Clinton has 
used since October 1994 to display a changing collection of American 
sculpture. On the west, tucked between the mansion and the West 
Wing, is the celebrated Rose Garden, where Ellen Wilson planted 
the first roses in 1913. It has since become one of the most famous 
gardens in the world. 

For all their timelessness and beauty, the White House gardens 
and grounds are in constant use by the President, and are enjoyed by 
thousands every year. The Rose Garden is in use almost every day, 
hosting official signing ceremonies, impromptu news conferences, or 
champion sports teams visiting the White House. The south lawn 
is used for numerous events, such as arrival ceremonies for visiting 
heads of state and the annual Congressional picnic. 

On Easter Monday, the President and First Lady open the gates to 
throngs of children who come to the traditional Easter Egg Roll. 
This event originally started at the Capitol and was moved to the 
White House by President Hayes in 1879. The presence of little 
children in the ongoing story of the White House is also 
commemorated today in the Children's Garden, located in the 
groves on the west side of the south lawn. It contains impressions in 
bronze of the hands and feet of the grandchildren of recent 
Presidents. 

Gardens are living environments. They do not survive without care 
and constant improvements. The White House gardens and grounds 
we see today have been in the making for 200 years, tying us to our 
ancestors in a special but real way. In this respect, these grounds 
are a unique monument to our past. 



COMMEMORATIVE PLANTINGS 



1. Southern Magnolia - Franklin D. Roosevelt (1942) 

2. Southern Magnolia - Warren G. Harding (1922, replaced 1947) 

3. Jacqueline Kennedy Garden (1965) 

4. Willow Oak - Ronald Reagan (1988) 

5. Little Leaf Linden - George Bush & Queen Elizabeth II (1991) 

6. White Pine - Gerald R. Ford (1977) 

7. Eastern Redbud - George Bush (1990) 

8. Northern Red Oak - Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) 

9. Patmore Ash - George Bush (1989) 

10. White Dogwood - Bill & Hillary Clinton 

11. White Dogwood - Bill & Hillary Clinton 

12. Purple Beech - George Bush (1991) 

13. American Elm - John Q. Adams (original 1826, Barbara Bush 1991) 

14. White Oak - Herbert Hoover (1935) 

15. Willow Oak - Bill & Hillary Clinton (1993) 

16. Japanese Maple - Rosalynn Carter (1978) 

17. Japanese Maple - Frances Folsom Cleveland (1893) 

18. American Elm - Bill & Hillary Clinton (1993) 

19. Children's Garden - Lyndon B. Johnson (2969) 



(1995) 
(1996) 





20. White Dogwood (3) - Hillary Rodham Clinton (1994) 

21. Cedar of Lebanon - ]iMM\ Carter (1978) 

22. White Oak - Herbert Hoover (1931) 

23. Pin Oak - Dwight D. Eisenhower (1958) 

24. Little Leaf Linden - Bill Clinton (1993) 

25. Little Leaf Linden - Franklin D. Roosevelt (1937) 

26. Willow Oak - Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) 
Saucer Magnolia (4) - John F. Kennedy (1962) 

28. Rose Garden (1913) 

29. Southern Magnolia (2) - Andrew Jackson (1830) 
Sugar Maple - Ronald Reagan (1984) 

31. Fern Leaf Beech - Patricia Nixon (1972) 

32. Fern Leaf Beech - Lady Bird Johnson (1968) 

33. American Elm - Betty Ford (1975) 

34. English & American Boxwood - Harry S. Truman (1952) 

35. Red Maple - Jimmy Carter (1977) 

36. White Saucer Magnolia (2) - Nancy Reagan (1982) 

37. W/j/fe OflA: - Franklin D. Roosevelt (1935) 

38. Scarlet Oak - Benjamin Harrison (1889) 




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Twentieth Century American Sculpture 
At the White House 

Exhibition VI 

Exhibition VI of the series Twentieth Century American Sculpture at 
the White House is subtitled Honoring Native America. This 
is the first installation in the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden that 
presents works by Native American artists. It is also the first 
showing ever in the nation's capital of a large and representative 
collection of contemporary Native American sculpture. 

The works were created by artists, from many parts of the United 
States, whose styles reflect Native cultural heritage as well as 
contemporary influences. Their materials include traditional woods, 
clay, and stone, together with newer forms in steel, bronze, and 
aluminum. Grouped together at the White House, they reflect the 
strength of the Native American art movement. 

Only a few mainstream American art museums have collected in this 
field, and relatively few large-scale works by Native artists are 
found in public collections. The Heard Museum in Phoenix, where 
contemporary Native art has been a focus for four decades, was 
honored to organize this show. Most of the art works are from the 
Heard's permanent collection. Others have been loaned generously 
by the Anchorage, Alaska, Museum of History and Art; the Gilcrease 
Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Washington County and the Oregon 
College of Arts, Portland, Oregon; and the Wheelwright Museum, 
Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

Allan Houser (Chiricahua Apache, 1914-1994), widely regarded as 
the most influential Native American sculptor and art mentor of our 
time, was honored before his death with the National Medal of the 
Arts, presented at the White House by Mrs. Clinton. He is 
represented in this exhibition by Earth Song, a 1978 work in Alabama 
marble. 

Three contemporaries of Allan Houser are included. Willard Stone 
(Cherokee, 1915-1985) crafted the graceful Ladi/ of Spring from 
walnut. George Morrison (Ojibway, b. 1919), was active in the 
postwar New York abstract expressionism movement, an influence 
suggested in his 1980 stained-cedar Red Totem. John Hoover (Aleut, 
b. 1919), continues a long and prolific artistic career with the 
recently-created Sea Weed People, a work in bronze. 



Bob Haozous (Apache/Navajo/English/Spanish, b. 1943) is a son of 
Allan Houser. His 1983 steel sculpture Woman in Love, which 
appears to float horizontally before the viewer, is a distinctive 
personal evolution of the fluid shapes often used by his father. Doug 
Hyde (Nez Perce/ Assiniboine/Chippewa, b. 1946), once a student of 
Allan Houser, honors the valor of veterans and warriors with Flag 
Song, fashioned from Tennessee pink marble. 

Alaska and the Pacific Northwest have produced many important 
Native artists and sculptors. Susie Bevins Ericsen/Qimmiqsak 
(Inupiat, b. 1941) is of the generation that followed John Hoover. She 
is represented by Guardians and Sentinels, a 1994 work in aluminum. 
In 1997 R. E. Bartow (Yurok, b. 1946) carved his 26' pole. Untitled, 
from the indigenous cedar of the Northwest. 

Truman Lowe (Winnebago, b. 1944), is represented by Bird Effigy, an 
aluminum sculpture created in 1997. Doug Coffin 

(Potawatomi/Creek, b. 1946), evokes the totem tradition in his 28' 
contemporary painted steel structure. Earth Messenger Totem. 

Santa Clara Pueblo in New Mexico is home to two of the artists. 
Nora Naranjo-Morse (Tewa, b. 1953), an acclaimed poet and film 
maker, created the bronze sculpture Khzvee-seng (Woman-Man), c. 
1994. Her niece Roxanne Swentzell (Santa Clara, b. 1963) used Pueblo 
clay, shaped by the traditional coil-and-scrape technique, for her 
1988 figurative grouping. The Emergence of the Clowns. 

We at the Heard Museum are very grateful to First Lady Hillary 
Rodham Clinton for launching the wonderful series of installations of 
twentieth-century American sculpture in the Jacqueline Kennedy 
Garden, and for her personal encouragement of this show. Honoring 
Native America was organized through the energetic efforts of 
Margaret Archuleta (Pueblo/Hispanic), curator of fine art at the 
Heard Museum. Our thanks to each of the living artists for their 
enthusiastic support, to the other institutions that have lent works 
from their collections, to White House Curator Betty C. Monkman 
and her highly professional staff, and to our colleagues at the 
National Park Service and the National Gallery of Art for 
installation assistance. 



Martin Sullivan 
Director, Heard Museum 



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